Sunday, May 17, 2020

CSS Alabama - Civil War - Confederate Raider

Nation: Confederate States of AmericaType: Screw SteamerShipyard: John Laird Sons, BirkenheadLaid Down: 1862Launched: July 29, 1862Commissioned: August 24, 1862Fate: Sunk, June 19, 1864 CSS Alabama - Specifications Displacement: 1,050 tonsLength: 220 ft.Beam: 31 ft., 8 ft.Draft: 17 ft., 8 in.Speed: 13 knotsComplement: 145 men CSS Alabama - Armament Guns 6 x 32 lb. guns, 1 x 100 lb. Blakeley Rifle, 1 x 8 in. gun CSS Alabama - Construction Operating in England, Confederate agent James Bulloch was tasked with establishing contacts and finding vessels for the fledgling Confederate Navy. Establishing a relationship with Fraser, Trenholm Company, a respected shipping company, to facilitate the sale of Southern cotton, he was later able to use the firm as a front for his naval activities. As the British government remained officially neutral in the American Civil War, Bulloch was unable to purchase ships outright for military use. Working through Fraser, Trenholm Company, he was able to contract for the construction of a screw sloop at the yard of John Laird Sons Company in Birkenhead. Laid down in 1862, the new hull was designated #290 and launched on July 29, 1862. Initially named Enrica, the new ship was powered by a direct-acting, horizontal condensing steam engine with twin horizontal cylinders which powered a retractable propeller. In addition, Enrica was rigged as a three-masted barque and was capable of employing a large spread of canvas. As Enrica completed fitting out, Bulloch hired a civilian crew to sail the new vessel to Terceira in the Azores. Reaching the island, the ship was soon met by its new commander, Captain Raphael Semmes, and the supply vessel Agrippina which was carrying guns for Enrica. After Semmes arrival, work began to convert Enrica into a commerce raider. Over the next few days, sailors endeavored to mount the heavy guns which included six 32-pdr smoothbores as well as a 100-pdr Blakely Rifle and an 8-in. smoothbore. The latter two guns were placed on pivot mounts along the ships centerline. With the conversion complete, the ships moved into international waters off Terceira where Semmes officially commissioned the s hip into the Confederate Navy as CSS Alabama on August 24. CSS Alabama - Early Successes Though Semmes had sufficient officers to oversee the running of Alabama, he had no sailors. Addressing the crews of the attending ships, he offered them signing money, lucrative bonuses, as well as prize money if they signed on for a cruise of unknown length. Semmes efforts proved successful, and he was able to convince eighty-three sailors to join his ship. Electing to remain in the eastern Atlantic, Semmes departed Terceira and began stalking Union whaling ships in the area. On September 5, Alabama scored its first victim when it captured the whaler Ocumlgee in the western Azores. Burning the whaler the following morning, Alabama continued its operations with great success. Over the next two weeks, the raider destroyed a total of ten Union merchant ships, mostly whalers, and inflicted around $230,000 in damage. Turning west, Semmes sailed for the East Coast. After encountering poor weather en route, Alabama made its next captures on October 3 when it took the merchant ships Emily Farnum and Brilliant. While the former was released, the latter was burned. Over the next month, Semmes successfully took eleven more Union merchant ships as Alabama moved south along the coast. Of these, all were burned but two which were bonded and sent to port loaded with crewmen and civilians from Alabamas conquests. Though Semmes desired to raid New York Harbor, a lack of coal forced him to abandon this plan. Turning south, Semmes steamed for Martinique with the goal of meeting Agrippina and resupplying. Reaching the island, he learned that Union ships were aware of his presence. Sending the supply ship to Venezuela, Alabama was later forced slip past USS San Jacinto (6 guns) to escape. Re-coaling, Semmes sailed for Texas with the hope of frustrating Union operations off Galveston, TX. CSS Alabama - Defeat of USS Hatteras After pausing at Yucatan to conduct maintenance on Alabama, Semmes reached the vicinity of Galveston on January 11, 1863. Spotting the Union blockading force, Alabama was seen and approached by USS Hatteras (5). Turning to flee like a blockade runner, Semmes lured Hatteras away from its consorts before turning to attack. Closing on the Union sidewheeler, Alabama opened fire with its starboard broadside and in a quick thirteen-minute battle forced Hatteras to surrender. With the Union ship sinking, Semmes took the crew aboard and departed the area. Landing and paroling the Union prisoners, he turned south and made for Brazil. Operating along the coast of South America through late July, Alabama enjoyed a successful spell that saw it capture twenty-nine Union merchant ships. CSS Alabama - Indian Pacific Oceans In need of refit and with Union warships searching for him, Semmes sailed for Cape Town, South Africa. Arriving, Alabama spent part of August undergoing a badly-needed overhaul. While there, he commissioned one of his prizes, the bark Conrad, as CSS Tuscaloosa (2). While operating off South Africa, Semmes learned of the arrival of the powerful USS Vanderbilt (15) at Cape Town. After making two captures on September 17, Alabama turned east into the Indian Ocean. Passing through the Sunda Strait, the Confederate raider eluded USS Wyoming (6) before making three quick captures in early November. Finding hunting sparse, Semmes moved along the north coast of Borneo before overhauling his ship at Candore. Seeing little reason to remain in the area, Alabama turned west and arrived at Singapore on December 22. CSS Alabama - Difficult Circumstances Receiving a cool reception from British authorities in Singapore, Semmes soon departed. Despite Semmes best efforts, Alabama was in increasingly poor condition and badly needed dockyard refit. In addition, crew morale was low due to poor hunting in eastern waters. Understanding that these issues could only be resolved in Europe, he moved through the Straits of Malacca with the intention of reaching Britain or France. While in the straits, Alabama made three captures. The first of these, Martaban (formerly Texas Star) possessed British papers but had changed from American ownership only two weeks earlier. When Martabans captain failed to produce a sworn certificate stating that the papers were authentic, Semmes burned the ship. This action incensed the British and would ultimately force Semmes to sail for France. Re-crossing the Indian Ocean, Alabama departed Cape Town on March 25, 1864. Finding little in the way of Union shipping, Alabama made its final two captures in late April in the form of Rockingham and Tycoon. Though additional ships were sighted, the raiders fouled bottom and aging machinery allowed the potential prey to out-run the once-swift Alabama. Reaching Cherbourg on June 11, Semmes entered the harbor. This proved a poor choice as the only dry docks in the city belonged to the French Navy whereas La Havre possessed privately-owned facilities. Requesting use of the dry docks, Semmes was informed that it required the permission of Emperor Napoleon III who was on vacation. The situation was made worse by the fact that the Union ambassador in Paris immediately alerted all Union naval vessels in Europe as to Alabamas location. CSS Alabama - The Final Fight Among those who received word was Captain John A. Winslow of USS (7). Having been banished to a European command by Secretary of Navy Gideon Welles for making critical comments after the 1862 Second Battle of Manassas, Winslow quickly got his ship underway from the Scheldt and steamed south. Reaching Cherbourg on June 14, he entered the harbor and circled the Confederate ship before departing. Careful to respect French territorial waters, Winslow began patrolling outside of the harbor to prevent the raiders escape as well as prepared Kearsarge for battle by tricing chain cable over the vital areas of the ships sides. Unable to secure permission to use the dry docks, Semmes faced a difficult choice. The longer he remained in port, the greater the Union opposition would likely become and the chances increased that the French would prevent his departure. As a result, after issuing a challenge to Winslow, Semmes emerged with his ship on June 19. Escorted by the French ironclad frigate Couronne and the British yacht Deerhound, Semmes approached the limit of French territorial waters. Battered from its long cruise and with its store of powder in poor condition, Alabama entered the battle at a disadvantage. As the two vessels neared, Semmes opened fire first, while Winslow held Kearsarges guns until the ships were only 1,000 yards apart. As the fight continued, both ships sailed on circular courses seeking to gain an advantage over the other. Though Alabama hit the Union vessel several times, the poor condition of its powder showed as several shells, including one that hit Kearsarges sternpost, failed to detonate. Kearsarge faired better as its rounds hit with telling effect. An hour after the battle began, Kearsarges guns had reduced the Confederacys greatest raider to a burning wreck. With his ship sinking, Semmes struck his colors and requested help. Sending boats, Kearsarge managed to rescue much of Alabamas crew, though Semmes was able to escape aboard Deerhound. CSS Alabama - Aftermath The Confederacys top performing commerce raider, Alabama claimed sixty-five prizes which were valued at a total of $6 million. Hugely successful in disrupting Union commerce and inflating insurance rates, Alabamas cruise led to the use of additional raiders such as CSS Shenandoah. As many Confederate raiders, such as Alabama, CSS Florida, and Shenandoah, had been built in Britain with the British governments knowledge that the ships were destined for the Confederacy, the US Government pursued monetary damages after the war. Known as the Alabama Claims, the issue caused a diplomatic crisis that was finally resolved by the formation of a twelve-man committee which ultimately awarded damages of $15.5 million in 1872. Selected Sources CSS Alabama AssociationURI: CSS Alabama

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Diary of Anne Frank Book Review Essay - 1385 Words

The Diary of Anne Frank Book Review On June 12, 1929, at 7:30 AM, a baby girl was born in Frankfort, Germany. No one realized that this infant, who was Jewish, was destined to become one of the worlds most famous victims of World War II. Her name was Anne Frank. Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, by Anne Frank and B.M. Mooyaart, was actually the real diary of Anne Frank. Anne was a girl who lived with her family during the time while the Nazis took power over Germany. Because they were Jewish, Otto, Edith, Margot, and Anne Frank immigrated to Holland in 1933. Hitler invaded Holland on May 10, 1940, a month before Anne?s eleventh birthday. In July 1942, Annes family went into hiding in the Prinsengracht building.†¦show more content†¦Almost every person at one point in his or her lives takes something for granted. Just imagining what Anne and her family had to go through makes us realize that life is rough sometimes, and we may not always get what we want, but it could always be worse, and maybe we should l earn to take pleasure in the little things life has to offer. From reading this book, we gathered a lot of information. One of the most important messages was that things don?t come easy for everyone, and you should appreciate what you have when you have it because in a matter of days, it could all be gone. Like we said before, life could always be worse, I mean we could be dead (knock on wood). We knew this girl who had everything that she could possibly want. She was very lucky, yet she never really appreciated what was handed to her every day. One day, while driving to her friends? house, she was hit by a car, and she wasn?t so lucky anymore. She could no longer walk, or even talk. In a matter of seconds, her whole life was changed. Had she known this was going to happen, I?m sure there would have been more ?I love you?s? or ?thank you?s?, and maybe spent less time worrying about how people looked and more time worrying about how they felt. Appreciating the small things life has to offer is something everyone should learn to do. Anne andSho w MoreRelated The Diary Of Anne Frank - Book Essay1042 Words   |  5 Pages The Diary of Anne Frank is about a girl that kept a diary while hiding from Nazi’s in Amsterdam for two years. The diary ends when the Nazi’s found her and her family. Her whole family was killed in exception for her father. She was given the journal on her thirteenth birthday. She simply summarized her life for two years in this phenomenal journal. This journal was found after she was killed. The book was published in 1947. 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After the Germans invaded the Netherlands, it was no longer safe for Anne Frank’s family so they hid in a secret room insi de the office of Anne Frank’s dad. Some friends that weren t Jewish helpedRead MoreFreedom Writers : Film Review1085 Words   |  5 PagesFreedom Writers Film Review But even an ordinary secretary Or a housewife or a teenager Can, within their own small ways, Turn on a small light in a dark room. - Miep Gies Just like how Erin Gruwell (Hilary Swank) turned the lights on, in the dark room of 203. Freedom Writers is a film inspired by students of Woodrow Wilson High School as they experience the aftermath of LA riots. Los Angeles resembles a war zone back in the 1992. During this time in America, it all comes down to what a person lookRead MoreCensorship and Book Banning Essay1817 Words   |  8 Pages(â€Å"Banned Books and Authors†). Harry Hoffman, president of Walden Book Co., Inc., is accurate in this aspect. When books are censored or banned, they are not eliminated from society; however, their message emanates to create an impact. Even if the public conceals the content in these books, the victims that these censors sequester from these works are rarely unexposed to what is being censored to them. By challenging or attempting to ban a book, more attention is drawn to that distinct book, so society

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Hundred Years War free essay sample

A discussion of the political events that led to the Hundred Year War between the kings of England and France and the events which perpetuated after its closing. A paper which examines the years before, during and after one of the longest running conflicts between England and France the Hundred Year War which ran between the years 1337 and 1453. The paper examines the political ramifications of the war for both parties during the length of the war and after its closing. The Hundred Years War is a rather misleading name for the war between England and France in the fourteenth century. The war between the kings of England and France lasted between 1337 and 1453, which is certainly not hundred years. The war didnt last 116 years either. The number of actual warfare were much less one hundred, since in the course of this 116 year period there were numerous long truces and two treaties of peace intended to put a stop to hostilities entirely. We will write a custom essay sample on The Hundred Years War or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One must also add that at the time accepted as the end of the war there was no peace treaty. Also, the actual war started in 1337, while bad relations existed between the two kings ever since the Norman take over of the English throne years before the actual starting of the war. The war was affected by the values that the kings of the two countries possessed and the events of the outside world. The war made no important change in the relations of the two lands until its close, when England lost its possessions on the Continent and turned to up-building of sea power.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Madame Curie Essays - Radioactivity, Nobel Laureates In Physics

Madame Curie Discoverer of Radium Originally named Marja Sklodowska, Marie Curie was born in Warsaw on Nov. 7, 1867. Her father taught high school physics. In 1891 she went to Paris (where she changed her name to Marie) and enrolled in the Sorbonne. Two years later she passed the examination for her degree in physics, ranking in first place. She met Pierre Curie in 1894, and they married in 1895. Marie Curie was interested in the recent discoveries of radiation. Wilhelm Roentgen had discovered X rays in 1895/ ~ 1896 Antoine Henri Becquerel had discovered that the element uranium gives off similar invisible radiations. Curie thus began studying uranium radiations, and, using piezoelectric techniques devised by her husband, carefully measured the radiations in pitchblende, an ore containing uranium. When she found that the radiations from the ore were more intense than those from uranium itself, she realized that unknown elements, :.Jas. more radioactive than uranium, must be present. Marie Curie was the first to use t he term radioactive to describe elements that give off radiations as their nuclei break down. Pierre Curie ended his own work on magnetism to join his wife's research, and in 1898 the Curies announced their discovery of two new elements: polonium (named by Marie in honor of Poland) and radium. During the next four years the Curies, working in a leaky wooden shed, processed a ton of pitchblende, laboriously isolating from it a fraction of a gram of radium. They shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics with Becquerel for the discovery of radioactive elements. Marie Curie was the first female recipient of a Nobel Prize. In 1904 Pierre Curie was appointed professor of physics at the University of Paris, and in 1905 he was named a member of the French Academy. Such positions were not then commonly held by women, and Marie was not similarly recognized. Pierre's life ended on April 19, 1906, when he was run over by a horse-drawn cart. His wife took over his classes and continued her own research In 1911 she received an unprecedented second Nobel Prize, this time in chemistry, for her work on radium and radium compounds. She became head of the Paris Institute of Radium in 1914 and helped found the Curie Institute. Marie Curie's final illness was diagnosed as pernicious anemia, caused by overexposure to radiation. She died in Haute Savoie on July 4, 1934. The Curies had two daughters, one of whom was also a Nobel Prize winner. Irene Joliot-Curie and her husband, Frederic received the 1935 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the synthesis of new radioactive elements.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

History of the HOlocaust

History of the HOlocaust A History of the Holocaust In the book A History of the Holocaust: From Ideology to Annihilation, Rita Botwinick makes many valid points about the Holocaust. She discusses major themes occurring during the Holocaust period of World War II such as intentionalism vs. functionalism and the role of churches during the war. She supports almost all of her arguments with solid research and sources as well as personal observations. Her points are very well thought out and persuasive. I would like to focus on a few of the main ideas that stuck out to me as I read the book. Did Hitler want a Germany that was free of Jews or was his master plan simply to wipe all Jews off the face of the Earth? It is this question that gives rise to the debate of whether Hitler held an intentionalist or a functionalist ideology. The arguments in favor of intentionalism insist that Hitler's intent, even before the war, was to systematically and effectively annihilate the Jewish population from the world.English: Rows of bodies fill the yard of Lager Nor...On the other side of this argument is Functionalism. This ideology holds that Hitler did not set out to annihilate the Jews but that the ridding of their race arose, not from a previously devised plan, but evolved due to many factors over the course of the war. Botwinick argues that Hitler did want to rid Germany of the Jewish race but, that the systematic killing of every Jew was not his initial plan. Thus, she reluctantly sides with the functionalist argument. She does, however, cite evidence that at times contradicts this viewpoint. One such contradiction occurs with the dying statement of Hitler. In this quote he states that although he had lost the war, he had "at least been victorious in the destruction of the Jews" (p.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

The Difference between the Third Way and Socialism Essay

The Difference between the Third Way and Socialism - Essay Example It has information about Western Europe and Anglo American world. This can include thoughts from western philosophers like Kant, Marx Hegel,Heder , Hobbes, Rousseau and miller. It has ideas and thoughts about industrial revolution in 19th century .In modern political ideas, new political theories and definitions are explored and explained. Modern political ideas suggest that the glimpse shown by social philosophers are more or less unreal and exaggerated. In order to portray political philosophies more realistically, practical matters must be included in them. If we go little deeper into Modern political ideas we can analyze two concepts namely; Third Way and socialism. It is necessary to understand these two concepts in order to analyze or interpret them. These two ideas are separate still share a common link to each other. According to BBC(1999)â€Å"Put at its most basic the third way is something different and distinct from liberal capitalism with its unswerving belief in the me rits of the free market and democratic socialism with its demand management and obsession with the state†. ... It emphasizes on responsibility, obligation and de-centralizing government while giving less importance to income re- distribution. As per Mercer (2005)â€Å"On the world stage, socialism has reinvented itself successfully and has surfaced in the guise of the vaunted Third Way whose main apparatchiks are the Clintons, the pair from Cool Britannia and the German Chancellor, Gerhard Schroeder†. The third way is a middle path where the government will tread on in order to escape the liberal attitude of socialist principles and capitalism view of industrialists. This is a successful method of governing people as citizens will get ownership to property as well as freedom to act on their own. They can also govern themselves regarding their capabilities, rights, property ownership and responsibilities in society. The ideas and principles of third way is not accurate, hence their specification is difficult. There are arguments that third way politicians speak on a double standards. Th e relation of third way with socialism Socialism has reinvented successfully in the new age and new socialist concepts are bandwagon into third way politics. The concepts of third way politics are adhered by social democrats to formulate third way social democracy. The third way democracy proponents argue that it is not socialism and it is â€Å"competition capitalism†. By accepting capitalism the new right is representing social democrats. There is something called centralized socialism and decentralized socialism. However centralized socialism is traditional and decentralized socialism needs to be taken over by the former. The association of state ownership and social ownership has an automatic association and it is followed by traditional

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Scientific Advancement in the 20th Century Essay

Scientific Advancement in the 20th Century - Essay Example Instead of analyzing the problem on scientific basis, they have adhered to their timeworn ideologies with a practical surrender to the materialistic values in vogue. Even the torchbearers, the so-called intellectuals and modern scholars of any religion pretend to be abreast with the modern scientific thought have given in to the onslaught of modern sciences and in secret depths of their hearts feel nervous how to defend their position. They are doing more harms than good by defending their post with archaic weapons. Like the case of William James in his "Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature" wrote: Failure, then, failure! So the world stamps us at every turn. We strew it with our blunders, our misdeeds, our lost opportunities, with all the memorials of our inadequacy to our vocation. And with what a damning emphasis does it then blot us out! No easy fine, no mere apology or formal expiation, will satisfy the world's demands, but every pound of flesh exacted is soaked with all its blood. The subtlest forms of suffering known to man are connected with the poisonous humiliations incidental to these results. And they are pivotal human experiences. A process so ubiquitous and everlasting is evidently an integral part of life. 'There is indeed one element in human destiny,' Robert Louis Stevenson writes, 'that not blindness itself can controvert. Whatever else we are intended to do, we are not intended to succeed; failure is the fate allotted.' And our nature being thus rooted in failure, is it any wonder that theologians should have held it to be essential, and thought that only th rough the personal experience of humiliation which it engenders the deeper sense of life's significance is reached (Varieties, p. 138) The main reason of this fall to dishonor and disdain, is the writer's indifference towards scientific disciplines. It has put among the tail-enders in the world. An in-depth inquiry of human history reveals that our forefathers disseminated thought and philosophy to the whole world and founded numerous scientific disciplines. Had our forefathers not accomplished their pioneer work in the field of empirical sciences, the contemporary scientific disciplines could never have developed into their present status. They dawned in the words of William James and others1 with wisdom on the Western thoughts and drowned in murk and darkness of ignorance. This philosophy amply fled on our illuminating heredity. And we spared everything witlessly. The science is advancing by leaps and bounds. As shown in the William work, he was rightly proud of his superior evolutionary status among the comity of nations. As he keep the poor and the deprived dependent and subdued, he also intended to see the other religions under their subjugating authority. His philosophical thought and civilization is eating up geographical distances and the world spread over millions of miles has been reduced to Global village. Owing to scientific progress, deserts are being transformed into meadows and fertile fields. The mineral wealth is drawn to one feet. Scientific knowledge has enabled to bring all the natural sources under human control and consumption. This is, however, tragic to note that his scientific approaches are adamantly bent upon keeping the backward nations dependent and subdued. In this regards, the minorities are well-defined target. Like